Mascot for #DevilDiss

Mascot for #DevilDiss
Mascot for #DevilDiss

Sunday, March 30, 2014

Thesis Prospectus (first of many versions I'm sure)


“Pondering his voyage”: The Evolution of the Character of Satan from Genesis B: Christ and Satan to Paradise Lost
Current scholarship in Milton studies focuses on several related topics Paradise Lost’s function as a polemic, Paradise Lost as anti-royalist writing, Satan as a revolutionary and the use of Satanic subjects as a way of illustrating Milton’s heretical tendencies. These topics can be seen in Lander’s Inventing Polemic: Religion, Print, and Literacy Culture in Early Modern England (2006), Bryson’s The Tyranny of Heaven: Milton’s Rejection of God as King (2004), Achinstein’s Milton and the Revolutionary Reader (1994), Lieb’s Theological Milton: Deity, Discourse and Heresy in the Miltonic Canon (2006), Loewenstein and Marshall’s Heresy, Literature and Politics in Early Modern English Culture (2007) and Achinstein and Sauer’s Milton and Toleration (2007). These works tend to look at Paradise Lost as either a way to view the other political writings of the time or as proof of Milton’s heretical leanings. Some writers, most notably and recently Neil Forsyth in The Old Enemy and The Satanic Epic, have looked at what sources Milton may have used in creating his compelling character of Satan. Scholarly work on Milton’s character of Satan has restricted itself to sources or analogues that Milton probably used or had access to rather than examining how the character of Satan was portrayed in British literature up to, and including Milton’s portrayal.
Milton both created an entirely new character and fused multiple past aspects of devils with his representation. He took a flat, stereotypical character and created a dynamic, compelling character. As Blake is often quoted “people are guilty of knowing their Milton better than their Bible”. To many, Milton’s portrayal of Satan is the one most people think is described in the Bible and it is the portrayal seen the most in literature since. For this reason, it is important to understand what ideas and concepts Milton drew on from folklore and literature and how he used these to create an entirely new character.
While the most recent scholarship focuses on political ramifications and issues, there are two notable exceptions: Forsyth, who has analyzed possible sources and analogues for Milton’s Satan, and Russell, who has researched the more general devil character. While Forsyth’s The Satanic Epic (2003) focuses mainly on how Paradise Lost functions as an epic, the opening chapter addresses the origins of the character of Satan. Forsyth begins examining Satan chronologically so that he can trace Milton’s sources. He begins with the Adversary, in the Book of Job, Origen’s work where Satan is first seen as a rebel, he then looks at the comparison of rebellious Satan to Zeus, and Prometheus and Icarus, compares God to the Titans and Zeus to Satan. He goes on to state that Milton followed the shape of ancient mythic epics such as the Illiad and the Aeneid, as well as the heroes in them, in creating Satan. Then Forsyth states that Satan was used by the early and medieval church as a representation of heresy and argues that the story of Satan evolved through the middle ages into the story presented in Genesis B (Christ and Satan), which solidifies the idea of Satan as a rebellious angel. Forsyth’s work focuses on the “type” of character Satan is while ignoring the specific characterizations and how they are part of the character’s evolution.
Russell explores similar source territory as Forsyth with his book Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1984), where he researches the concept of evil as reflected in the figure of the devil in popular literature, art and during the middle ages. He looks at worldwide sources, and examines the devil in medieval art, poetry, and drama. Russell covers a large field, but unfortunately there are gaps in his coverage; it would have been illuminating if instead of rehashing old material, he had focused more on unexplored material, such as looking at the visual representations of the devil through this period since this is a topic rarely discussed. Both Russell and Forsyth provide the reader with background information on the types of sources Milton might have used but both focus on specific literature for references and what gets neglected are the ideas and concepts that were present in folklore about how the devil was viewed and presented.
One of the difficulties faced when analyzing the character of Satan is the choice between the literary character or the folkloric character. Recent scholarship has addressed the idea that Milton’s characterization of Satan in Paradise Lost has become the modern concept of the devil (Knoppers and Semenza). Forsyth has in detail, addressed the origins of the character in both The Satanic Epic and The Old Enemy. However, one issue that I do not believe has received enough attention is how Milton’s characterization of Satan has more basis in folklore than in literature, specifically the folklore character of Loki.  One of the problems with this approach is that folklore often falls under the heading of anthropology, while the character of Satan has mainly been analyzed through literature. However, analysis of this issue quickly reveals that in Britain, the character of Satan is deeply rooted in folkloric material. My dissertation will build mainly on the work of Forsyth and Russell, examining not just the examples of Satan in English literature from the Anglo-Saxons to Milton, but will also historicize and analyze the significance of these representations. I argue that Milton’s Satan is the folkloric, and not the literary representation, and my dissertation will trace the evolution of this folkloric character.
Most of the work involving analyzing sources for Milton’s Paradise Lost was written in the first half of the 20th century. Some scholars have examined the character of Satan in general, not specific to Milton’s portrayal such as Le Bosquet’s “The Evil One: A Development” (1912), Caldwell’s series “The Doctrine of Satan: In the Old and New Testament” (1913), Kellogg in “Satan, Langland, and the North” (1949), and Stein’s “Satan: The Dramatic Role of Evil” (1950). During the second half of the twentieth century, scholarship has focused on Satan as an epic or anti-hero or on comparing Paradise Lost to Judaic and Biblical writings. The current trend of viewing Paradise Lost through a political lens has dominated scholarly work lately. An examination of the character of the devil from Christ and Satan, up to Milton’s portrayal has not been pursued.
Some individual scholars such as Lever, Woolf, Rohrich, and Potter have looked at singular sources for the devil. Lever examines the similarities between the characters of Satan in Christ and Satan and Paradise Lost; Woolf compares the character of Satan to Loki; Rohrich examines the character of the devil in the Germanic literary tradition; and Potter argues that the devil in English folktales is the same as was portrayed in drama. These individual examinations are valuable, but they do not give the big picture, and the big picture is what this project will produce.
Textual analysis between Milton’s characterization and previous characterizations of the devil are invaluable because they allow us to trace how the character evolved and allows us to analyze what the presented characterizations meant within their own context. Perhaps the closest comparison is between Milton’s Satan, and the Satan of Genesis B: Christ and Satan. Lever addresses this issue in “Paradise Lost and the Anglo-Saxon Tradition” (1947), where he spends the entire article addressing the similarities between Satan in Christ and Satan and Satan in Paradise Lost; however, he counters himself at the end by stating that the similarities are simply coincidence, as should be expected of something addressing common Christian themes, a statement he does not elaborate on. Lever argues that while Milton may have been familiar with the Genesis B text, this is an unimportant point, as the commonalities of language are simply due to the similar subject matter. Despite his contradictory theories, Lever’s work is important to mine for the textual analysis of Satan in Christ and Satan.
Woolf, on the other hand, in “The Devil in Old English Poetry” (1953) states that similarities in characterization between Satan and Loki are due to Loki myths and Satan (in Christ and Satan) emerging at the same time. He argues that the origins of Satan as a hero possibly began with the Anglo Saxons, as they would have seen his actions as heroic for how he dealt with his inevitable expulsion from heaven. Woolf also addresses the fact that Christian doctrine and Loki mythology would have coincided and compares the similarities between the two characters. His evidence of both characters acting as tempters, shapeshifters, and sly and cunning characters provides an excellent source for the character of Milton’s Satan.
Folklore provides some of the richest research into the character of the devil and in “German Devil Tales and Devil Legends” (1970), Rohrich argues that devil tales and legends have stopped being folklore and have become part of the historical record. He gives a detailed description of how these devil tales and legends evolved as well as makes a reference to connections to medieval sermons.. He ends his argument by citing Grimm’s fairy tales as evidence of the popularity of these tales and legends. While the Grimm brothers did not compile their tales until the early 1800s, the sources for their tales (the Germanic literary tradition) had been around for much longer and therefore these tales and legends are an excellent source for comparison to Milton.
While both Woolf and Rohrich’s focus on Germanic/Norse myths would seem to exclude their research from the scope of this project, it is important to realize that these tales would have been known to the Anglo Saxons and therefore are an important part of the literary tradition. The influence of the stereotypical characterization of the devil in folklore on Paradise Lost has not been examined in depth despite the similarities. For instance, in Book 9, when Satan goes to tempt Eve, Milton changes from referring to Satan as “the Enemy” and instead refers to him as “the Tempter”. In light of Loki’s reputation as a tempter, prankster and cunning creature, it’s hard not to draw a connection. When Milton uses words such as “the spirited sly snake” (613), “the wily adder” (625) to describe Satan and says he leads Eve “To mischief swift” (633) it becomes easy to recognize the parallels to Loki.
Another source for comparison is the portrayals of the devil/Satan in drama. In “Three Jacobean Devil Plays” (1931), Potter argues that it was the devil of English folklore that was represented on the English stage, a devil that was instantly recognizable by his physical appearances and starred in comedies of the time. The devil of these plays did not depend upon a magician to conjure him up; the action of the play begins in Hell and despite the fact that it is accepted that the devil can change his shape, he is recognized by his eyes, animal-like sounds, and the thunder or lightning that accompanies his appearance. These devils were self-possessed characters of their own merit and not dependent upon humans, although humans were often the butt of the individual devil’s jokes. These dramas served not only to show the devil of English legend and folklore but also to forward the life of the character. Which characteristics of the devil were forwarded and which weren’t is also of interest. When looking at the evolution of the character, many of these characterizations are similar to how Loki is portrayed in folklore. Cawley points out that Loki is characterized as defying Odin’s order, sly and treacherous, known as a shape shifter, as well as a tempter who possibly heralds the end of the world, Ragnarok. Milton’s Satan defies God’s order, is sly, treacherous, changes his shape so that he won’t be recognized by the angels guarding Earth and tempts Eve in the Garden. Due to these similarities,  these dramas, as well as the folktales that inspired them, are worth examining.
While the above scholarship gives detailed information on devil characterizations in individual sources, what is not present in the scholarship is a comprehensive examination of the evolution of the character of Satan since Genesis B, how the character culminates with Milton’s new fusion of characteristics in his portrayal, and that Milton’s character is the folkloric Satan. This is important because it opens up a whole new set of questions in regards to examining Paradise Lost and the character of Satan. Some of these questions are: how is the character used to personify a particular religious or political figure of the time (pope, anti-royalist)? How does the author of any given source or analogue use the character of Satan (as a figure to be feared, a moral lesson, as an anti-hero) and how seriously does the author treat the character of Satan? What role did the character play in nationalistic arguments? How was the character of Satan used to mask dangerous political positions in literature? How did the character evolve as time went by?
In not addressing these questions, scholars have failed to be able to fully place Milton fully in context. Examining classical and biblical sources Milton may have used only goes part of the way. To appreciate Milton’s new creation with the character of Satan, one must understand that he took the flat, stereotypical character as seen in folklore and early literature and made him a dynamic and compelling character that became the modern definition of Satan. In neglecting this course of study, scholars are also deprived of a course of study in examining the devil in literature that came after Milton and was influenced by Paradise Lost.
In my dissertation, I will look at the major characterizations of Satan in literature from Genesis B to Paradise Lost in order to trace the evolution of this folkloric character. This project will have four chapters, as well as an introduction and conclusion., each focusing on a specific topic: physicality, actions and personality as seen chronologically within the following works in order to show how the character evolves and how each portrayal builds on its predecessors. My introduction will give a brief history of the Anglo-Saxon movement into England, and examine how they brought their mythology and folklore with them that then becomes the basis for English folklore. In particular I will focus on the character of Loki, and his similarities to Satan as a tempter and shape-shifter.  Chapters one, two, and three will each examine the same texts covering medieval and early modern literature from different perspectives. Chapter one will focus on the personality of Satan, chapter two will focus on the physical attributes of him, and chapter three will examine his actions. I chose these three markers because they are the main qualities for recognizing Satan. For each of the texts, I plan on historicizing the character/example and examining how they are used and their impact.
Chapter one “Dark Suggestions” will argue that Satan’s characterization as a tempter, who uses words and rhetoric to seduce and convince has it’s basis in the mythology of Loki, and is one of the main features that marks Satan as folkloric. I plan on using Foucault to examine these examples, specifically how Satan uses words to manipulate and gain power.
Chapter two ““Our Enemy” will argue that Satan’s physical characteristics, both as having animal traits, and as a shapeshifter, are proof of his folkloric nature. I will also use Said’s theory of Orientalism to examine in which ways the character of Satan is used to “Other” marginalized groups or figures in literature, and the ways in which Said’s theory breaks down in certain examples. I also plan on using Bakhtin’s theory of the grotesque to examine how the animal nature of Satan is used rhetorically in these texts.
Chapter three “Dark Designs” will argue that the actions of Satan, as a tempter, seducer, and trickster figure is also proof of his folkloric nature. I will specifically focus on the language of pacts or contracts that is used by Satan, using a Foucaultian lens as well as examining Bakhtin’s theory of carnivale.
Chapter four “Among the Nations round” will pull all of these examples together and build on them to argue that Milton purposely chose the folkloric representation in order to achieve his original intent of writing a national epic. I will examine how Paradise Lost contains the elements of a national epic, as well as historicize the text by examining the scholarship on Milton’s original intent to write a national epic, and explain how the folkloric representation of Satan presents a Paradise Lost as a text aimed at the people. As Milton’s characterization of Satan becomes the basis for modern representation, it is key to understand not only the evolution of the character, but also how Milton contributes to folklore with his characterization.
My argument focuses on the folkloric character of Satan, so I am restricting my text choices to literature that clearly and specifically mentions Satan. For the purposes of this research, the term Devil, devil, Satan, and Lucifer are interchangeable, as they were often used in this way. Likewise, while church documents, strictly religious writings, and polemical/political writings all make reference or use of the devil figure, I am excluding them from my dissertation as their impact on the populace, and thus as a reflection of popular culture/folklore of the time cannot be gauged in the same way that it can in literature.
I plan on examining the following works:
  • Medieval Texts
  • Poetic Edda
  • Genesis B
  • Morality/Mystery Plays (York, Castle, Mankind, Marian plays)
    • Margery Kempe
    • Sir Gowther  
    • Robert the Devil
    • Prose Merlin
    • Layman's Brut
  • Early Modern Texts
    • Witch of Endor
    • Barnes, Barnabe. The Devil’s Charter.Merry Devil of Edmonton.
    • Dekker, Thomas.
    • Heminges, William. The Fatal Contract.
    • Marlowe, Christopher. Doctor Faustus.
    • ----. The Jew of Malta.
    • Rowley, William, Thomas Dekker and John Ford. The Witch of Edmonton.
    • Webster, John. The White Devil.
    • -----. The Devil’s Law Case.
    • James I: Demonologie
    • Doctor Faustus
    • Theosophilis legend

Bibliography
Achinstein, Sharon and Elizabeth Sauer. Milton and Toleration. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Archetypes and Motifs in Folklore and Literature: A Handbook. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2005.
Achinstein, Sharon. Milton and the Revolutionary Reader. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.
"Arnold Stein." PMLA, Vol. 65, No. 2 (1950): 221-231.
Ayto, John. Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase & Fable. New York: Collins, 2005.
Bailey, Michael D. “From Sorcery to Witchcraft: Clerical Conceptions of Magic in the Later Middle Ages”. Speculum 76:4 (Oct., 2001): 960-990. Print.
-----. “The Feminization of Magic and the Emerging Idea of the Female Witch in the Late Middle Ages”. Essays in Medieval Studies 19 (2002): 120-134. Print.
Bosquet, John Edwards Le. "The Evil One: A Development." Harvard Theological Review Volume 5 (1912): 371-384.
Bryson, Michael. The Tyranny of Heaven: Milton's Rejection of God as King. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2004.
Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament." The Biblical World Vol. 41, No. 1 (Jan 1913): 29-33.
Cawley, Frank Stanton. "The Figure of Loki in Germanic Mythology." The Harvard Theological Review Vol. 32, No. 4 (1939): 309-326.
Dubruck, Edelgard. “Thomas Aquinas and Medieval Demonology”. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science Vol. 7 (1974): 167-183. Print.
Edden, Valerie. "Devils, Sermon Stories, and the Problem of Popular Belief in the Middle Ages." The Yearbook of English Studies Vol.22 (1992): 213-225.
Encyclopedia of Folklore and Literature. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1998.
Forsyth, Neil. The Satanic Epic. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.
Funk and Wagnall’s Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology, and Legend. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1949-1950.
Kellogg, Alfred L. "Satan, Langland, and the North." Speculum, Vol. 24, No. 3 (1949): 413-414.
Knoppers, Laura Lunger and Semenza, Greg. Milton in Popular Culture. Palgrave Macmillon. New York. 2006. Print.
Kors, Alan Charles and Edward Peters ed. Witchcraft in Europe 400-1700: A Documentary History 2nd Edition. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, 2001. Print.
Lander, Jesse M. Inventing Polemic: Religion, Print, and Literary Culture in Early Modern England. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Laoire, Lillis O. "That Be't banagher and Banagher Be't the Devil. An International Devil Tale in Irish Tradition." Bealoideas Vol 62/63, Glortha on Osnadur: Paipeir a cuireadh i lathair ag an Siomposium Nordach-Ceilteach (1994/1995): 189-198.
Lever, J.W. "Paradise Lost and the Anglo-Saxon Tradition." The Review of English Studies (1947): 97-106.
Lieb, Michael. Theological Milton: Deity, Discourse and Heresy in the Miltonic Canon. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 2006.
Lowenstein, David and John Marshall. Heresy, Literature and Politics in Early Modern English Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
McGinn, Bernard. “Evil-sounding, rash, and suspect of heresy”: Tensions between Mysticism and Magisterium in the History of the Church”.  The Catholic Historical Review Vol. 90 No. 2 (2004): 193-212. Print.
Moulton, Susan. “WITCHCRAFT: creation of the “evil other””. A presentation for the Office of Resources for International and Area Studies (ORIAS). July 2011. Web. 15 November 2013.
Potter, Russell. "Three Jacobean Devil Plays." Studies in Philology Vol. 28, No. 4 (1931): 730-736.
Rohrich, Lutz. "erman Devil Tales and Devil Legends." Journal of the Folklore Institute, Vol. 7, No. 1 (1970): 21-35.
Russell, Jeremy Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages. Ithaca: Cornell University Press , 1986.
-----. Lucifer. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, 1986. Print.
-----. Witchcraft in the Middle Ages. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, 1972. Print.
Stanley, Lynn ed. The Book of Margery Kempe. Norton & Company: New York, 2001. Print.
Steinfirst, Susan. Folklore and Folklife: A Guide to English-Language References Sources. New York: Garland, 1992.
Thompson, Stith. Motif-Index of Folk-Literature: A Classification of Narrative Elements in Folktales, Ballads, Myths, Fables, Mediaeval Romances, Exempla, Fabliaux, Jest-Books, and Local Legends. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1955-1958.
Woolf, R.E. "The Devil in Old English Poetry." The Review of English Studies (1953): 1-12.

Saturday, March 29, 2014

Abstract/Bibliography for “Playing in the Background: Folklore’s Relationship to the American Gothic”

So for my American Gothic class, our final project is to submit an article to a journal in our field, which by the way should be the final project of every grad class.
We have two smaller assignments we're submitting in order to prep for this- one is a rhetorical analysis of the journal we think we want to send to, and the other is a bibliography and abstract for our article.
I had a hard time with this, because it's not how I usually write/prep for articles, but that's okay, new things and all that.
So, the final count for my abstract/bibliography (since professor wants every work the author ever did) is 31 pages.
Enjoy.


Abstract for “Playing in the Background: Folklore’s Relationship to the American Gothic”
This article explores how folklore is the perfect vehicle and serves as the foundation of the American Gothic, representing the cultural fears of the people. This article examines the folklore of Upstate New York in Washington Irving’s “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”, Catawba folklore in William Gilmore Simms’ “Caloya; or, the Loves of the Driver”, and Southern and African American folklore in Charles Chesnutt’s “Po Sandy”.
Keywords: American Gothic, folklore, Washington Irving, William Gilmore Simms, Charles Chesnutt.


Bibliography
Subject
Becker, Jane S. and Barbara Franco. Folkroots, New Roots: Folklore in American Life. Lexington: Museum of Our National Heritage, 1988.
Botkin, B.A, ed. A Treasury of New England Folklore: Stories, Ballads, and Traditions of the Yankee People. New York: Crown Publishers, 1947.
Earl, Riggins R. Dark Symbols, Obscure Signs: God, Self, and Community in the Slave Mind. New York: Orbis Books, 1993.
Mullen, Patrick B. The Man Who Adores the Negro: Race and American Folklore. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008.
Puckett, Newbell Niles. Folk Beliefs of the Southern Negro. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1926.
Ringel, Faye. New England’s Gothic Literature: history and folklore of the supernatural from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries. New York: Mellon, 1995.
Simmons, William S. Spirit of the New England Tribes: Indian History and Folklore 1620-1984. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1986.
Taft, Lewis A. Profile of Old New England: Yankee Legends, Tales, and Folklore. New York: Dodd, Mead, and Company, 1965.
Reference
American Folklore: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland, 1996.
American Popular Culture: A Historical Bibliography. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 1984.
Archetypes and Motifs in Folklore and Literature: A Handbook. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2005.
Ayto, John. Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase & Fable. New York: Collins, 2005.
Encyclopedia of Folklore and Literature. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1998.
Funk and Wagnall’s Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology, and Legend. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1949-1950.
Handbook of American Popular Culture. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978-1981.
Haywood, Charles. Bibliography of North American Folklore and Folksong. New York: Dover, 1961.
Panati, Charles. Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things. New York: Perennial Library, 1987.
Southern, Eileen. African-American Traditions in Song, Sermon, Tale and Dance, 1600’s-1920: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature, Collections, and Artworks. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.
Steinfirst, Susan. Folklore and Folklife: A Guide to English-Language References Sources. New York: Garland, 1992.
Thompson, Stith. Motif-Index of Folk-Literature: A Classification of Narrative Elements in Folktales, Ballads, Myths, Fables, Mediaeval Romances, Exempla, Fabliaux, Jest-Books, and Local Legends. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1955-1958.
Wilson, Charles Reagan, editor. The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.
Text
Andrews, Jeanmarie. “Ghosts in Sleepy Hollow Country”.  Early American Life (October 2001): 18-21.
Anthony, David. “’Gone Distracted” “Sleepy Hollow,” Gothic Masculinity, and the Panic of 1819”. Early American Literature 40:1 (2005 ):111-144.
Bauer, Margaret D. “On Flags and Fraternities: Lessons on Cultural Memory and Historical Amnesia in Charles Chesnutt’s “Po’ Sandy”. Southern Literary Journal 40:2 (2008): 70-86.
Fisher, Benjamin F. “Simms's Bosky Gothic, the 'Region of Doubt and Shadow'”. Studies in the Novel 35:2, (2003): 157-177.
Hughes, Robert. “Sleepy Hollow: Fearful Pleasures and the Nightmare of History”. Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory 61:3 (2005): 1-26.
Lloyd-Smith, Allan. American Gothic Fiction: An Introduction. New York: Continuum (2004).
Martin, Robert K. and Eric Savoy. American Gothic: New Interventions in a National Narrative. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1998.
Plummer, Laura and Michael Nelson. “Girls can take care of themselves”: Gender and Storytelling in Washington Irving’s “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”. Studies in Short Fiction 30 (1993): 175-184.
Poenicke, Klaus. “Engendering Cultural Memory: “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” as Text and Intertext”. Amerikastudien 43:1 (1998): 19-32.
Smith, Greg. “Supernatural ambiguity and possibility in Irving’s The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.” The Midwest Quarterly 42.2 (Winter 2001): 174-82.
Thompson, Shirley Elizabeth. “The Hard Work of Black Play: Charles Chesnutt’s conjure tales and a counterculture of incorporation”. Leisure Studies 27:4 (2008): 411-426.
White, Jeannette S. “Baring Slavery’s Darkest Secrets: Charles Chesnutt’s Conjure Tales as Masks of Truth”. Southern Literary Journal 27:1 (1994):85-103.
Author
Butterwork, Keen and James E. Kibler Jr. William Gilmore Simms: a reference guide. Boston: G.K Hall and Co., 1980.
Chesnutt, Charles. "A Battle Hymn" Social Circle Journal, XVIII (October, 1886), 1. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. "Appreciation" Puck, April 20, 1887, p.128. Reprinted in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 64-65. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. "Baxter's Procrustes" Atlantic Monthly, XCIII (June, 1904), 823-30. Reprinted in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 413-422.Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 266-278.Tales of Conjure and the Color Line: 10 Stories, 1998, pp. 98-108. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. "The Averted Strike" Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 383-90. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. "The Ballad of Fair Oscar" Tid-Bits, December 18, 1886 (CC). The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. "The Exception" Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 353-56. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. "The Garden" n.p., December, 1886 (CC). The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. "Walter Knox's Record" Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 374-82. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. "White Weeds" Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 391-404. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. Baxter's Procrustes. Cleveland: The Rowfant Club, 1966. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. Frederick Douglass. Boston: Small Maynard, In the Beacon Biographies of Eminent Americans series, ed. M. A. de Wolfe Howe. 1899. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. Tales of Conjure and the Color Line : 10 Stories. Ed. and with an Introduction by Joan R. Sherman, Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc. vii, 117 pp. 1998. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. The House Behind the Cedars. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 294 pp. 1900. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. The Marrow of Tradition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, vi, 329 pp. 1901. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. The Quarry Ed. Dean McWilliams, Princeton: Princeton University Press, xvii, 298 pp. 1999. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. The Short Fiction of Charles W. Chesnutt. Washington, DC: Howard UP, (hardback) Edited and Introduced by, Sylvia Lyons Render. 422 pp. 1974. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. The Wife of His Youth and Other Stories of the Color Line. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1899. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Bad Night" Atlanta Constitution, August 2, 1886, p.5 Reprinted in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 271-78. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Busy Day in a Lawyer's Office" Tid-Bits, January 15, 1887 (CC). Reprinted in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 73-74 The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Cause CŽl?bre" Puck, January 14, 1891, p.354. Reprinted in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 68-69. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Deep Sleeper" Two Tales, 5.53 March 11, 1893, pp. 1-8. Reprinted: in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 115-22. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 136-145. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Defamer of His Race" Critic, 38.4 (April, 1901), 350-51. Book review of William Hannibal Thomas, The American Negro (New York: Macmillan, 1901). The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Doubtful Success" Cleveland News and Herald, February 17, 1888 (CC). The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Fatal Restriction" Puck, May 1, 1889, p. 166. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Father's Dream" Cleveland Voice, March 8, 1885, p.2. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Fool's Paradise" Family Fiction, November 24, 1888 (CC).Reprinted: in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 321-29. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Grass Widow" Family Fiction, May 14, 1887 (CC). Reprinted: in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 330-42. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Limb of Satan" Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 195-201. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Matter of Principle" The Wife of His Youth and Other Stories of the Color Line, pp.94-131. Reprinted: Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 149-167. Tales of Conjure and the Color Line : 10 Stories, 1998, pp. 67-82. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Metropolitan Experience" Chicago Ledger, June 15, 1887 (CC). Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 286-91. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Midnight Adventure" New Haven Register, December 6, 1887 (CC). Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 85-88. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Miscarriage of Justice" Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 357-64. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Multitude of Counselors" New York Independent, 43 April 2, 1891, pp. 4-5. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Plea for the American Negro" Critic, XXXVI (February, 1900),160-63. Book review of Washington's The Future of the American Negro. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Roman Antique" Puck, July 17, 1889, p. 351. Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 75-76. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Secret Ally" New Haven Register, September 19, 1887 (CC). Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 303-05. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Soulless Corporation" Tid-Bits, April 16, 1887 (CC). Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 70-72. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Summer Cloud" Cleveland Voice, August 30, 1885, p.2. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Tight Boot" Cleveland News and Herald, January 30, 1886 (CC). Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 58-61. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Victim of Heredity; or, Why the Darkey Loves Chicken" Self-Culture Magazine, XI (July, 1900), 404-409. Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 123-131. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 172-182. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Virginia Chicken" Household Realm, August, 1887 (CC). Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 164-67. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."A Visit to Tuskegee" Cleveland Leader, March 31, 1901, p.19. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Advice to Young Men" Social Circle Journal, XXXVIII (November, 1886), 1. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Advocates New Social House" Cleveland Journal, December 2, 1905, P.1. Reprint of a Chesnutt speech, "Does Central Avenue Need a Social Settlement House?" delivered before the Cleveland Negro Board of Trade, November, 1905. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."American Orators and Oratory" American orators and oratory: being a report of lectures delivered/by Thomas Wentworth Higginson at Western Reserve university; under the auspices of the Western Reserve Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. Reported by Charles W. Chesnutt. Published: Cleveland, OH: Imperial Press, 91 p.: Ill., 1901. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."An Eloquent Appeal" Puck, June 6, 1888, p.246. Reprinted: in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 66-67. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."An Oasis" Tid-Bits, n.d. (CC). The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."An Original Sentiment" Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 78-79. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Aunt Lucy's Search" Family Fiction, April 16, 1887 (CC). Reprinted in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 209-13. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Aunt Mimy's Son" Youth's Companion, March 1, 1900, pp.104-105.Reprinted in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 202-08. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Cartwright's Mistake" Cleveland News and Herald, September 19, 1888 (CC).Reprinted in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 315-20. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Charles W. Chesnutt's Own View of His New Story, 'The Marrow of Tradition'" Cleveland World, October 20, 1901, Magazine Section, P.5. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Cicely's Dream" The Wife of His Youth and Other Stories of the Color Line, pp. 132-67. Reprinted: Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 168-186. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Concerning Father" Crisis, XXXVII (May, 1930), 153-55, 175. Reprinted in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 89-96. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Dave's Neckliss" Atlantic Monthly, LXIV (October, 1889), 500-508. Reprinted in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 132-41. Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 89-101. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 123-135. Tales of Conjure and the Color Line : 10 Stories, 1998, pp. 21-31. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Frisk's First Rat" Educator[Fayetteville], March 20, 1875, np. Reprinted: in North Carolina Literary Review, 8 (1999): 87. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Gratitude" Puck, December 26, 1888, p. 300. Reprinted: in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 62-63. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Her Virginia Mammy" The Wife of His Youth and Other Stories of the Color Line, 1899, pp. 25-59. Reprinted: Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 114-131. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Hot-Foot Hannibal" Atlantic Monthly, LXXXIII (January, 1899), 49-56. Reprinted: The Conjure Woman, 1899. 195-229. Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 76-88. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 107-122. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."How a Good Man Went Wrong" Puck, November 28, 1888, p.214. Reprinted: in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 190-191. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."How Dasdy Came Through" Family Fiction, February 12, 1887 (CC). Reprinted: in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 249-52. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."How He Met Her" Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 283-85. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Jim's Romance" Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 343-52. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."L'Epouse de sa Jeunesse" Trans. Marie Louise Preis. Jour'nal de Geneve, 2nd, ed., November 4, 1910, p. 4; November 5, 1910, p. 4; November 6, 1910, p. 2. French translation of "The Wife of His Youth," The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Lincoln's Courtship" Southwestern Christian Advocate, February 4, 1909, p.8.
-----."Lonesome Ben" Southern Workman, XXIX (March, 1900), 137-45. Reprinted: in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 106-114. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 146-157. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Mars Jeems's Nightmare" The Conjure Woman, 1899, pp.64-102. Reprinted: Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 25-39. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 55-69. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."McDugald's Mule" Family Fiction, January 15, 1887 (CC). Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 183-85. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Methods of Teaching" Minutes of the North Carolina State Teachers' Educational Association. Raleigh, N.C.: Baptist Standard Print, 1883, pp. 5-13. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Mr. Taylor's Funeral" Crisis, IX (April, 1915), 313-16; X (May, 1915), 34-37. Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 261-70. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Negroes To Walk in Perry's Parade" Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 8, 1913, p.3. News article containing a brief Chesnutt essay on the role of Afro-Americans in the War of 1812. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Obliterating the Color Line" Cleveland World, October :23, 1901, p. 4. Unsigned editorial attributed to Chesnutt. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."On the Future of His People." Saturday Evening Post, 20 January 1900, p. 646. (Book review of Booker T. Washington's The Future of the American Negro, Boston: Small, Maynard. 1899.) The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Peonage, Or the New Slavery" Voice of the Negro, 1 (Sept. 1904) 394-97 The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Po' Sandy" Atlantic Monthly, LXI (May, 1888), 605-11. Reprinted: The Conjure Woman,1899. 36-63. Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 14-24. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 44-54. Tales of Conjure and the Color Line : 10 Stories, 1998, pp. 12-20. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Post-Bellum-Pre-Harlem" Colophon, II, No.5 (1931). Reprinted in Crisis, XL (June, 1931), 1934. In: Elmer Adler, ed. Breaking into Print. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1937. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Pussy Meow: The Autobiography of a Cat, S. L. Patteson" Modern Culture, XIV (November, 1901), 261. (Book review.) The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Race Ideals and Examples" A.M.E. Review, XXX, No.2 (1913), 101-117. Text of an address delivered at Wilberforce University, June, 1913. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Race Prejudice: Its Causes and Its Cure" Alexander's Magazine, I (July 15, 1905), 21-26. Text of an address delivered before the Boston Historical and Literary Association, June, 1905. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."She Reminded Him" Puck, September 21, 1887, p.58. Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 77. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Sis' Becky's Pickaninny" The Conjure Woman, 1899, pp. 132-61. Reprinted: Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 51-62. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 82-93. Tales of Conjure and the Color Line : 10 Stories, 1998, pp. 57-66. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Stryker's Waterloo" Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 365-73. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Superstitions and Folk-Lore of the South" Modern Culture, XIII (May, 1901), 231-35. Reprinted in Alan Dundes, ed., Mother Wit from the Laughing Barrel. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973. pp. 369-376. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Bouquet" Atlantic Monthly, LXXXIV (November, 1899), 648-54. Reprinted. The Wife of His Youth, 1899. As "The Bunch of Yellow Roses," Living Age, April 7, 1900, pp. 63-66. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----. The Conjure Woman. Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin, iv, 294 pp. 1899. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Conjurer's Revenge" Overland Monthly, XIII (June, 1889), 623-29. Reprinted: The Conjure Woman,1899. 103-31. Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 40-50. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 70-81. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Disfranchisement of the Negro." Booker T. Washington, et al. The Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of To-day. New York: James Pott, 1903, pp. 79-124. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Doctor's Wife" Chicago Ledger, June 1, 1887 (CC).Reprinted: in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 279-82. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Doll." The Crisis, 3 (April 1912) p. 248-52. Reprinted: in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 405-12. Tales of Conjure and the Color Line : 10 Stories, 1998, pp. 109-117. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Dumb Witness." Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 153-163. Reprinted: in The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 158-172. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Fall of Adam" Family Fiction, December 25, 1886 (CC).Reprinted: in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 177-82. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Free Colored People of North Carolina" Southern Workman, XXXI (March, 1902), 136-41. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Future American: A Complete Race Amalgamation Likely to Occur" Boston Evening Transcript, September 1, 1900, p.24. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Future American: A Stream of Dark Blood in the Veins of Southern Whites" Boston Evening Transcript, August 25, 1900, p.15. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Future American: What the Race Is Likely to Become in the Process of Time" Boston Evening Transcript, August 18, 1900, p.20. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Goophered Grapevine" Atlantic Monthly, LX (August, 1887), 254-60. Reprinted: The Conjure Woman, 1899. 1-35. Famous American Stories: A Collection of short stories by 19th Century American Authors. Ed. Karl-Heinz Wirzberger, Berlin: Seven Seas Publ. 1963. Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 1-13. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 31-43. Tales of Conjure and the Color Line : 10 Stories, 1998, pp. 1-11. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Gray Wolf's Ha'nt" The Conjure Woman, 1899, pp. 162-94. Reprinted: Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 63-75. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 94-106. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Kiss" Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 306-14. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The March of Progress" Century, LXI (January, 1901), 422-28. Reprinted: in Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 214-22. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Marked Tree" Crisis, XXIX (December-January, 1924-1925), 59-64, 110-13. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 142-52. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 194-207.
-----."The Mission of the Drama" Cygnet, January, 1920, pp.11-12 (CC). The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Negro in Art" Crisis, XXXIII (November, 1926), 28-29. Re-marks contributed to a symposium. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Negro in Cleveland" Clevelander, V (November, 1930), 3-4, 24, 26-27. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Negro in the South" Boston Evening Transcript, September 20, 1899, p. 16. Correspondent's summary of a Chesnutt lecture delivered at the Greenacre summer school in Elliot, Maine, in August, 1899. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Negro's Franchise" Boston Evening Transcript, May 11, 1901, p. 18. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Origin of the Hatchet Story" Puck, April 24, 1889, p.132. Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 83-84. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Partners" Southern Workman, XXX (May, 1901), 271-78. Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 253-60. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Passing of Grandison" The Wife of His Youth and Other Stories of the Color Line, 1899, 168-202. Reprinted: Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 187-204. Tales of Conjure and the Color Line : 10 Stories, 1998, pp. 83-97. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Prophet Peter" Hathaway-Brown Magazine, April 1, 1906, 51-66. Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 236-48. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Shadow of My Past" Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 292-302. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Sheriff's Children" New York Independent, November 7, 1889, pp. 30-32. Reprinted. The Wife of His Youth, 1899. Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 132-148. Tales of Conjure and the Color Line : 10 Stories, 1998, pp. 32-46. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Sway-Backed House" Outlook, LXVI (November, 1900), 588-93. Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 223-31. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Web of Circumstance" The Wife of His Youth and Other Stories of the Color Line, pp.291-323. Reprinted: Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 249-265. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The White and the Black" Boston Evening Transcript, March 20, 1901, p.13. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."The Wife of His Youth" Atlantic Monthly, LXXXII (July, 1898), 55-61. Reprinted: The Wife of His Youth, 1899. Translated into French by Marie Louise Preis as: "L'Epouse de sa Jeunesse," Jour'nal de Geneve, 2nd, ed., November 4, 1910, p. 4; November 5, 1910, p. 4; November 6, 1910, p. 2. Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 102-113. Tales of Conjure and the Color Line : 10 Stories, 1998, pp. 47-56. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Things To Be Thankful For" Social Circle Journal, 1886 (CC). The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."To the Grand Army of the Republic" Cleveland Leader, September 8, 1901, p.12. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Tobe's Tribulations" Southern Workman, XXIX (November, 1900), 656-64. Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 97-105. The Conjure Woman and Other Conjure Tales, 1993, pp. 183-193. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Tom's Warm Welcome" Family Fiction, November 27,1886 (CC). Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 186-89. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Two Wives" New Haven Evening Register, August 13, 1886, p. 3. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Uncle Peter's House" Syndicated by S. S. McClure and appeared in: Cleveland News and Herald, December, 1885; Saint Paul and Minneapolis Pioneer Press, December 7, 8, 1885, p. 8, 10. (CC). Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 168-76. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Uncle Wellington's Wives" The Wife of His Youth and Other Stories of the Color Line, 1899, pp. 203-68. Reprinted: Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 205-237. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."What Is a White Man?" New York Independent, May 30, 1889, p. 5-6. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Wine and Water" Family Fiction, April 23, 1887 (CC). Reprinted: Short Fiction, 1974, pp. 232-35. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----."Women's Rights" Crisis, X (August, 1915), 182-83. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
------.Mandy Oxendine: A Novel. Ed. Charles Hackenberry, Urbana: U of Illinois P, xxvii, 112 pp. 1997. Collected in North Carolina in the Short Story, by Richard Gaither Walser Chapel Hill: U North Carolina Press, 1948. Collected Stories of Charles W. Chesnutt, 1992, pp. 238-248. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
-----The Colonel's Dream. New York: Doubleday Page, viii, 294 pp. 1905. The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive nd. Web. 28 March 2014.
Guilds, John Caldwell, es. The Wigwam and the Cabin: Selected Fiction of William Gilmore Simms. Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press, 2000.
Guilds, John Caldwell and Charles Hudson eds. An Early and Strong Sympathy. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2003.
Guilds, John Caldwell and Caroline Collins eds. William Gilmore Simms and the American Frontier. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1997.
Hudson, Kathleen. “An Argument for a Gothic Charles W. Chesnutt: Contextualizing American Slavery and the Gothic”. International Gothic Association website (Dec. 2013).
Irving, Washington. The Complete Works of Washington Irving in one volume [microform]: [with a memoir of the author].Paris: Baudry’s European Library, 1834. Internet Archive, University of Alberta Libraries, 2010. Web. 28 March 2014.
Laurens, John. The Army Correspondence of Colonel John Laurens, in the Years 1777-8, Now First Printed from Original Letters Addressed to His Father, Henry Laurens, President of Congress, with a Memoir. Ed.William Gilmore Simms. New York: Bradford Club, 1867.
Ridgely, J.V. William Gilmore Simms. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1962.
Simms, William Gilmore. ed. A Supplement to the Plays of William Shakespeare. New York: George F. Cooledge & Brother, 1848. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Areytos. Charleston, SC: John Russell, 1846. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. As Good as a Comedy and Paddy McGann. Columbia, SC: U of SC P, 1972. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. As Good as a Comedy, or the Tennessean's Story. Philadelphia: A. Hart, 1852. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Atalantis; A Story of the Sea. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1848. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. A Story of the Sea: In Three Parts. New York: J. & J. Harper, 1832. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Beauchampe; or, The Kentucky Tragedy. New York: Redfield, 1856. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Beauchampe; or, The Kentucky Tragedy. A Tale of Passion. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1842. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Biographical Sketch From the Life of M.C.M. Hammond. Augusta: Jowitt and Shaver, 1876(?).William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Border Beagles: A Tale of Mississippi. New York: Redfield, 1855. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Border Beagles: A Tale of Mississippi. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1840. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Carl Werner, An Imaginative Story; with Other Tales of Imagination. New York: George Adlard, 1838. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Cassique of Accabee. Charleston, SC: John Russell, 1849. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Castle Dismal; or, The Bachelor's Christmas. New York: Burgess, Stringer Co., 1844. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Charlemont; or, The Pride of the Village. New York: Redfield, 1856. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Charleston, and Her Satirists; A Scribblement. Charleston, SC: James S. Burges, 1848. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Charleston: The Palmetto City. Columbia: The Southern Studies Program, University of South Carolina, 1976. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. City of the Silent: A Poem. Charleston: Walker and James, Publishers, 1850. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Confession; or, The Blind Heart. New York: Lea and Blanchard, 1841. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Confession, or The Blind Heart. New York: Redfield, 1856. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Count Julian; or, The Last Days of the Goth. A Historical Romance. Baltimore and New York: William Taylor & Co., 1845. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Donna Florida. Charleston: Burges and James, 1843. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Early Lays. Charleston: A.E. Miller, 1827. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Egeria: or, Voices of Thought and Counsel, for the Woods and Wayside. Philadelphia: E.H. Butler & Co., 1853. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Eutaw. New York: Redfield, 1856. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Father Abbot, or, The Home Tourist; a Medley. Charleston, SC: Miller & Browne, 1849. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Flirtation at the Moultrie House. Charleston, SC: Edward C. Councell, 1850. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Grouped Thoughts and Scattered Fancies: A Collection of Sonnets. Richmond: Wm. Macfarlane, Messenger Office. 1845. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Guy Rivers: A Tale of Georgia. New York: Redfield, 1855. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Guy Rivers: A Tale of Georgia. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1834. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Helen Halsey, or the Swamp State of Conelachita: A Tale of the Borders. New York: Burgess, Stringer & Co., 1845. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Joscelyn. Spartenburg, SC: The Reprint Company, 1976. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Joscelyn: A Tale of the Revolution. Centennial Edition. Vol. 16. Eds. John Caldwell Guilds, et. al. Columbia: U of SC P, 1975. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. "Katharine Walton; or, The Rebel of Dorcester." New York: Redfield, 1854. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Katharine Walton; or, The Rebel of Dorchester. Philadelphia: A. Hart, 1851. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Lays of the Palmetto: A Tribute to the South Carolina Regiment in the War with Mexico. Charleston, SC: John Russell, 1848. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Lyrical and Other Poems. Charleston: Ellis & Neufville, 1827. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Marie De Berniere: A Tale of the Crescent City, Etc. Etc. Etc. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo, and Co., 1853. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Martin Faber and Other Tales. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1837. 2 vols. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Martin Faber; The Story of a Criminal. New York: J. & J. Harper, 1833. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Matilda: or, the Spectre of the Castle. An Imaginative Story. Boston: F. Gleason, 1846. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Mellichampe: A Legend of the Santee.  New York: Redfield, 1854. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Mellichampe: A Legend of the Santee. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1836. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Michael Bonham; or, The Fall of Bexar. Richmond, VA: John R. Thompson, 1952. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Monody, on the Death of Gen. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Charleston: Gray &Ellis, 1825. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Norman Maurice; or, The Man of the People. An American Drama in Five Acts. Richmond: Jno. R. Thompson, 1851. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Norman Maurice; or, The man of the People. An American Dream. Charleston, SC: Walker and Richards, 1852. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Pelayo: A Story of the Goth. New York: Harper Brothers, 1838. Vol. 1. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Poems, Descriptive, Dramatic, Legendary and Contemplative. New York: Redfield, 1853. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Poetry and the Practical. Ed. James Everett Kibler Jr. Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press, 1996. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Richard Hurdis: A Tale of Alabama. New York: Redfield, 1855. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Richard Hurdis; or, The Avenger of Blood. Philadelphia: ;E.L. Carey & A. Hart, 1838. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Sabbath Lyrics: A Christmas Gift of Love. Charleston: Press of Walker and James, 1849. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Sack and Destruction of the City of Columbia, S.C. Columbia, SC: Power Press of Daily Phoenix. 1865. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Scrapbook A. N.d. Charles Carroll Simms Collection. South Caroliniana Library, U of South Carolina, Columbia, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Scrapbook B. N.d. Charles Carroll Simms Collection. South Caroliniana Library, U of South Carolina, Columbia, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Scrapbook C. N.d. Charles Carroll Simms Collection. South Caroliniana Library, U of South Carolina, Columbia, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Scrapbook D. N.d. Charles Carroll Simms Collection. South Caroliniana Library, U of South Carolina, Columbia, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Scrapbook E (Part II). N.d. Charles Carroll Simms Collection. South Caroliniana Library, U of South Carolina, Columbia, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Scrapbook F, Part I. N.d. Charles Carroll Simms Collection. South Caroliniana Library, U of South Carolina, Columbia, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Scrapbook F, Part II. N.d. Charles Carroll Simms Collection. South Caroliniana Library, U of South Carolina, Columbia, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Self-Development Milledgeville, GA: The Thalian Society [of Oglethorpe University], 1847. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Simms's Poems Areytos, or Songs and Ballads of the South with Other Poems. Charleston, SC: Russell & Jones, 1860. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Slavery in America: Being a Brief Review of Miss Martineau on that Subject. Richmond: Thomas W. White, 1838. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. South-Carolina in the Revolutionary War:Being a Reply to Certain Misrepresentations and Mistakes of Recent Writers, in Relation to the Course and Conduct of this State. Charleston: Walker and James, 1853. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Southern Passages and Pictures. New York: George Adlard, 1839. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Southward Ho! A Spell of Sunshine. New York: Redfield, 1856. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Stories and Tales. Ed. Guilds, John Caldwell, et. al. Columbia: U of SC P, 1974. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Book of My Lady: A Melange. Philadelphia: Key & Biddle, 1833. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Cassique of Kiawah: A Colonial Romance. New York: Redfield, 1859. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----, ed. The Charleston Book: A Miscellany in Prose and Verse. Charleston, SC: Samuel Hart, Sen., 1845. Introd. David Moltke-Hansen. Spartanburg, SC: The Reprint Company, 1983. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----, ed. The Cosmopolitan: An Occasional. 2 vols. Charleston, SC: Wm. Estill, 1833. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Cub of the Panther: A Hunter Legend of the ''Old North State.'' Miriam Jones Shillingsburg, ed. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1997. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Damsel of Darien. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1839. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Forayers; or, The Raid of the Dog-Days. New York: Redfield, 1855. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Geography of South Carolina. Charleston, SC: Babcock & Co., 1843. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Ghost of My Husband: A Tale of the Crescent City. New York: Chapman & Company, 1866. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Golden Christmas: A Chronicle of St. John's, Berkeley. Charleston: Walker, Richards and Co., 1852. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The History of South Carolina. New York: Redfield, 1860. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The History of South Carolina. Charleston: S. Babock & Co., 1840. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The History of South Carolina. 2nd ed. Charleston, SC: S. Babcock & Co., 1842. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Life of Captain John Smith. The Founder of Virginia. New York: Geo. F. Cooledge & Brother, 1847. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Life of Francis Marion. New York: Henry G. Langley, 1844. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----, ed. The Life of Nathanael Greene, Major-General in the Army of the Revolution. New York: George F. Cooledge & Brother, 1849. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Life of the Chevalier Bayard. New York: Harper &Brothers, 1847. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Lily and the Totem, or, the Huguenots in Florida. New York: Baker and Scribner, 1850. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Partisan: A Romance of the Revolution. New York: Redfield, 1854. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Partisan: A Tale of the Revolution. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1835. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Prima Donna: A Passage from City Life. Philadelphia: Louis A. Godey, 1844. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Remains of Maynard Davis Richardson, with a Memoir of His Life. Charleston, SC: O.A. Roorback, 1833. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Scout or The Black Riders of Congaree. New and Revised ed. New York: Redfield, 1854. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Sense of the Beautiful. Charleston, SC: Agricultural Society of South Carolina, 1870. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Sword and the Distaff. Charleston, SC: Walker, Richards, & Co., 1852. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Wigwam and the Cabin. New York: Redfield, 1856. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Yemassee: A Romance of Carolina. New York: Redfield, 1854. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Yemassee. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1835. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Tri-Color; or The Three Days of Blood in Paris. With Some Other Pieces. London: Wigfall & Davis, Strand, 1830. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Views and Reviews in American Literature, History and Fiction, First and Second Series. New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1845-6. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. The Vision of Cortes, Cain, and Other Poems. Charleston: James S. Burges, 1829. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Voltmeier, or the Mountain Men. Centennial Edition. Vol. 1. Eds. John Caldwell Guilds, et. al. Columbia: U of SC P, 1969. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----, ed. War Poetry of the South. New York: Richardson and Company, 1866. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
-----. Woodcraft or Hawks About the Dovecote. New York: Redfield, 1854. William Gilmore Simms Digital Edition, University of South Carolina, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2014.
Wimsatt, Mary Ann. The Major Fiction of William Gilmore Simms: Cultural Traditions and Literary Forms. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press (1989).